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Chicago Citation Style

Basic information and examples for creating footnotes and a bibliography in Chicago style.


  • Include the full title and sub-title of a book, journal, film, or other material.
  • Generally capitalize all words BUT only capitalize articles, conjunctions, and prepositions if they occur at the beginning of the title or sub-title.
    • Journal of the Acoustical Society of America.
    • Monotremes and Marsupials: The Other Mammals.
    • The Phantom of the Opera.
    • A Year of Living Dangerously.
  • Use italics for titles of books, journals, films, maps, databases.
  • Use quotation marks for titles of articles in journals, articles in encyclopedias, and essays in books.
    • "Perceptual Study of Soundscapes in Train Stations." Applied Acoustics
    • "Fitzgerald, Ella." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music.


  • For books, films, maps, and other monographic materials, give the place, publisher, and date of publication in that order. Note the correct punctuation.
    • New York: Praeger, 1987.
    • Bristol, England: White & Smith, 1997.
  • If there is more than one place of publication, give only the first one.
  • You may leave out words such as "Inc." or "Publishers" in the publisher's name.
    • Praeger Publishers -- use: Praeger.
  • If the city might be confused with another city of the same name, give the country or state.
    • Springfield, Mo.:
    • Rome, Italy:
    • Rome, Ga.:

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