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APA Style Citation

Guide to help students using the APA Style Manual

General Information

General Rules

  • Underline or italicize long works (i.e. books, edited collections, film titles, documentaries)
  • Put in quotes shorer works (i.e. article from an edited collection)
  • Utilize standard grammar (i.e. capitalize proper nouns, complete sentences, paragraph breaks, etc.)


Paraphrase [6.04]

  • Summarize the work, include author and year
  • May also include the page or paragraph number 


Short Quote

Short Quote [6.03]

  • Directly and accurately quote the source, include author, year, and page number or paragraph number
  • Less than 40 words
  • Include author, year, and page number


    Long Quote

    Long Quote [6.03]

    •  Directly and accurately quote the source, inclue author, year, and page number or paragraph number
    • More than 40 words
    • Include author, year, and page number
    • Written as a block of text without quotes
    • Indent five spaces from the left margin and the right margin



    Regarding conduct disorder (CD) Marsee and Frick (2005) wrote:

    Research on the development of conduct problems has uncovered a large number of risk factors associated with CD. These risk factors include dispositional characteristics located within the child (e.g. biological abnormalities, predisposing personality traits, cognitive deficits), as well as factors involving the child's social context (e.g. dysfunctional parenting practices, peer rejection, impoverished living conditions). Research suggests that risk factors have a cumulative effect on the development of problem behavior, with risk increasing in a linear manner from the presence of no risk factors to the presence of six or more risk factors (p. 292).

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